Differences between the USA and Great Britain
words (trousers / pants, flat / apartment, bonnet / hood (capot), lorry / truck, university / college, crisps / chips, chips / French fries, (trainers/sneakers), fizzy drink / soda, biscuit / cookie, chemist/ drugstore, shop/ store, (football/soccer)
spelling (centre / center, catalogue/catalog, defence/defense, burnt /burned…)
dating : In the UK, exclusivity is assumed and people don’t tend to approach strangers in public for dates. In the US however, exclusivity has to be confirmed, and approaching someone you find attractive in the US is more normal. Also, British people are more likely to ‘go Dutch’ – pay equal on a date – than Americans.
guns : In the US, it is legal (and in parts normal) to carry a gun and it’s even written into the constitution of the country. In the UK on the other hand, citizens can’t carry a gun in public, and neither can regular police officers.
drinking alcohol : The UK drinking age is 18, whereas the US drinking age is 21. In practice what that means is a lot of illegal drinking goes on in America. Still, the UK’s ‘standard drink’ is just 8g of alcohol, compared to the US, which is 14g.
Healthcare : Th UK has universal standardised healthcare in the form of the NHS (National Health Service). Although Barack Obama attempted to crate a health model similar to this, there is almost always a cost for using the health system in the US.
UK, USA: a special relationship
The UK, a melting pot
Urban area, located in the south of London.
– 1948 : the first British African-Caribbean community (492 individuals) arrive in England
– From 1948 : immigrants from all over the world keep coming
– 1981 : protests against police violence end up in riots
– 1985 : second major riot in Brixton
– today : gentrification* of Brixton
What Brixton means for the people who have always lived there :
It means « family, culture and colour », « home », the place where their parents met, where they have lived all their lives, a place of political awakening (= éveil)
What people used to think about Brixton
They used to think that it was a rough (= dangerous) area so most people didn’t want to interact with it. Yet others thought it was worth it living there to get a bigger place to live in. The district was stigmatized (= discredited) because of drug trafficking and its violence and criminality rate.
How gentrification is changing the area
It has made it a more welcoming place to the point that now, it has become an exciting, lively and trendy place. People are encouraged to go there and some have started a « love affair » with the neighbourhood. Yet, some fera that Brixton might lose its multicultural appeal. Soon they might not recognize the Brixton they grew up in.
The impacts of language, immigration and globalisation on cultural identity and integration
1) Who are the Dreamers and Parkland survivors ?
The Dreamers are the children of illegal immigrants and undocumented immigrants in the USA.
The Parland survivors are students who survived a school shooting in Parland, Florida, in 2018 that killed 17 people.
2) Compare the Dreamers and their parents.
Although both are undocumented immigrants, the Dreamers and their parents have different attitudes and mindsets. The Dreamers are much more self-confident, self-assertive and visible than their parents. While the latter did everything not to be noticed for fear of being sent back home, their children dare ask for rights forcefully and weigh more heavily in the country’s policies thanks to social media. They are not as afraid as their voiceless parents and they have been educated in the USA.
3) Why and how can they « change America » ?
Through their determined attitude and collective rebellion, the Dreamers as well as the Parkland survivors are managing to get heard and visible. Their movements are gaining momentum and politicians have no choice but to listen to them insofar as these young people may determine the elections’ turnout. These youth have a voice that matters and are initiating a new civil rights movement.
4) Would you say Barak Obama changed immigrants’ situation ?
Deportations of illegal immigrants increased during his first presidential term but dropped during the second one. In 2012, a temporary reprieve (= sursis) from deportation was granted to the the people who had been brought to the USA as children. More than 600,000 young people took advantage of this offer which also granted them work permits. In 2014, Obama unsuccessfully tried to expand reprieve to millions of the Dreamers’ parents.
1) What problem does the text deal with ? Which countries are concerned and for what reason ?
The text deals with the problem of Australian citizens who have a double nationality. The law forbids them to become members of parliament. They are considered suspiciously. This situation can also be found in other countries such as Egypt, Israel and Sri Lanka. In India, China and Indonesia, the situation is worse : dual citizenship is forbidden.
2) What historical facts have justified this situation until today?
When these laws were adopted , they were consistent with (= correspondre à) strict notions of identity based on blood and soil ; at that time, inner-states conflicts were frequent and dual citizens used be considered as traitors.
3) What position does the journalist have regarding this issue ?
According to the journalist who uses strong terms like « distasteful », « unfair » and « make no sense »‘, this discriminating system is obsolete (/ˈɒbsəliːt/) (= out-of-date). For him, loyalty should be measured by people’s involvement and countribution to their country and not by a passport. He also regards (= consider) sacrifice and respect for law as a proof of loyalty to one’s new country.
4) Can you find examples of forced assimilation ? Look for information on the web.
Examples of forced assimilation include the indegenous populations of the USA, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. In all theses cases, the children were taken from their families and placed in boarding schools or in non-native families in order to separate them from their cultures and native languages.
1) What do people often fear regarding globalisation ?
They fear globalisation (/ˌɡləʊbəlaɪˈzeɪʃən/) might lead to uniformisation (ˈjuːnɪfɔːrmaizeiʃən/) and standardisation ( /ˌstændərdaɪˈzeɪʃən) of culture as a result of the hegemony (/hɪˈgɛməni/)
of international brands.
2) Why are these fears not grounded or rational?
Three reasons are put forward (mettre en avant) :
– Culture is more deeply-rooted in society than brands whose values are not necessarily integrated into the country’s culture despite their visibility. Culture may be less visible but is defined by people’s attitude to time, acquaintances and their environment. So brands adapt to the local culture.
– Technologies have been adopted by people worldwide without necessarily adopting their original context and functions.
– Cultures are persistent (= tenace / persévérant) and resilient (= résistant) ; they evolve thanks to innovations and borrowings but without becoming copycats (= copieur / imitateur) but new and unique subcultures.
3) Quote the positive sides of globalisation.
It is a way of enriching local cultures which select and make the most of new forms of progress.
4) Can globalisation be considered as a form of imperialism ?
Imperialism (ɪmˈpɪəriəlɪzəm/) = the policy or ideology of extending a nation’s rule over foreign nations often by military force or by gaining political and economic control of other areas.
Globalisation (/ˌɡləʊbəlaɪˈzeɪʃən/)= the process of interaction and integration among people, companies and governments worldwide.
Globalisation is a form of imperialism since we live under the economic control of China and the soft power* of the USA.
* The term “soft power” was coined by political scientist Joseph Nye in the late 1980s and relates to a nation’s ability to attract or persuade other nations, rather than coerce using military or economic means.
1) ) Explain the notion of « Britishness »
It is the fact of being British or of having qualities that are considered as typical of British people. It forms the basis of their unity and identity and the expression of British culture.
2) When and how has Britishness evolved ?
The post-1945 era was a time of multiculturalism for the United Kingdom since people from the former British Empire, from Ireland and from other European countries migrated and settled there, contributing to the creation of a common identity. So Britishness became “Multi-identity Britishness” which means that Britishness is now a multifaceted identity ; It is in fact the sum of various identities, origins, backgrounds or cultures that merge into a unique, complex and rich identity.
3) Explain the effects of Brexit on the nations that form the UK.
Brexit has led to a more fragmented identity among the Scots, the Irish and the Welsh, who find it harder now to define themselves as British. Kathleen dreads that populist parties
and xenophobic movements might seize the opportunity and thrive in the UK. She refuses to be associated with racist trends.
1) What makes New Zealand « super diverse » ?
N.Z. can be qualified as “super diverse” because more than one quarter of the total population is made up of than 100 different ethnicities. In fact, 55 percent of the population are first or second generation immigrants, and there are 213 ethnicities represented in the country.
2) What action did Belinda take in favour of inclusion and diversity ? Why, according to you ?
In order to be more inclusive, her office has hired people from diverse ethnic and social backgrounds, as well as different age ranges. In the structure she leads, more than 20 ethnicities are represented.
In my opinion, she made an effort to have a diverse staff in order to set an example for other companies / show the benefits of diversity on a daily basis at work / benefit from diverse points of view / make sure that everybody feels represented in their institutions.
3) To her, what issue should be tackled in order to make New Zealand a more inclusive place ?
To make N.Z. a more inclusive place, she thinks there should be more communication. People should not be afraid to have uncomfortable conversations and speak their minds. They should find a way to have those conversations.
4) What is the benefit of being a diverse nation according to her ?
In her opinion, diversity improves creativity and innovation as you benefit from different perspectives and interactions. Consequently, a wider range of possibilities can be explored..
Exercise 2 ( more exercises on : ego4u.com)
- She is good at (dance) .
- He is crazy about (sing) .
- I don’t like (play) cards.
- They are afraid of (swim) in the sea.
- You should give up (smoke) .
- Sam dreams of (be) a popstar.
- He is interested in (make) friends.
- My uncle is afraid of (go) by plane.
- We insist on (cook) the dinner ourselves.
Exercise 3 (more exercises on: www.englisch-hilfen.de):
- I can’t imagine Peter (go) by bike.
- He agreed (buy) a new car.
- The question is easy (answer).
- The man asked me how (get) to the airport.
- I look forward to (see) you at the weekend.
- Are you thinking of (visit) London?
- We decided (run) through the forest.
- The teacher expected Sarah (study) hard.
- She doesn’t mind (work) the night shift.
- I learned (ride) the bike at the age of 5.
Grammar in action : LE PRETERIT MODAL ou CONDITIONNEL
I – QU’EST-CE QUE LE PRETERIT MODAL?
C’est la même chose que le prétérit simple sauf qu’il n’exprime pas une action ou un fait qui a eu lieu, mais un fait irréel ou imaginaire.
On utilise le prétérit modal combiné avec des expressions telles que :
–IF ONLY …..: If only I had a green card ! (si seulement…)
– WISH : I wish I emigrated / could emigrate. He wishes she were British. (j’aimerais….)
– I‘D RATHER … I’d rather you stayed in your native country. (Je préférerais …..)
– It’s (high) time…. It’s (high) time…. he were arrested (Il est (grand) temps….)
– IF…. If she asked me, I would tell her emigrating is a nonsense. (Si elle me le demandait, …)
Exercice 1 : Mettre les verbes entre parenthèses à la forme appropriée :
1. If I (have) powers, I would arrest all illegal immigrants.
2. She wishes he (be) on the other side of the border.
3. He would rather you (arrive) earlier.
4. My grandmother really wishes she (be) younger to start from scrach in the USA.
5. Suppose they (forget) their luggage, what would they do?
6. If she (fail) to become a US citizen, she would be devastated.
Exercice 2 : Reformulez les phrases suivantes
1. I’d like to have more friends! = I wish ………………………………………
2. It’s a pity that it is so cold. = I wish ………………………………………
3. I can’t speak English! = I wish ………………………………………
4. Don’t be so secretive! = I wish ………………………………………
5. It’s a pity that I am so shy. = I wish ………………………………………
8. It’s a pity that studying in the USA is so expensive. = I wish ……………………………………..
Exercice 3 : Traduire les phrases suivantes:
1. J’aimerais qu’il soit là! (utiliser « wish ») —–> ……………………………………………..
2. J’aimerais qu’elle vienne —–> ……………………………………………..
3. Elle aimerait être bilingue —–> ……………………………………………..
4. Si seulement je pouvais venir aux USA! —–> ……………………………………………..
5. Si j’étais toi, je quitterais mon pays natal —–> ……………………………………………..