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Environnements en mutation: Repenser la ville

Bac blanc

Le brouillon qui m'a permis de faire la synthèse

Le tableau des idées en fonction du plan donné dans l'énoncé

Vocabulary list: the Evolution of the City

Issues generated by cities

A. A gated community is a group of houses in a protected area with restricted access

B.What are the expectations of the people who want to live in gated communities? Answer and explain using your own words.

Safety and sameness People are afraid of the “real” world/try to create a feeling of security and exclusivity/fear of differences/rich people trying to stay together and recreate an idealized society/a cocoon

C.Explain in your own words why “gated communities can paradoxically compromise safety rather increase it” (l. 14-15).

-People living in gated communities are more and more isolated/are less involved in public life (more individualism) / have less and less contacts with different people

  • It leads to constant suspicion between social classes/ paradoxically increase residents’ feeling of insecurity

D.“This might be okay on a vacation, but it does not make for an ideal society.” (l. 25-26) What are the implications of this distinction?

Problem of being isolated from the rest of the community / from the public sphere in the long term/individuals are also citizens / an ideal society cannot work when communities ignore one another / vacation vs real worl

Urban sprawl

Evolution of the society : it is getting more and more urban with the expansion and the
development of cities into suburbs.

Why : for better job opportunities or for the excitement of the city life

The issue : Providing housing for an ever larger population.

Urban sprawl. = the expansion of a geographical extent of a city or town due to local population growth

More and more people want more space, more privacy or lower cheaper housing or
more amenities

Policies restricting residential areas to specific places without integrating them to commercial and work areas.

Its characteristics :

– a low density development (large or/and scattered land lots)
– car dependence
The example of Los Angeles :

The residential housing area has expanded,(larger lots) and traffic has also increased but the road system has not been adjusted to fit this increase.


1) When does a city become a megacity ? When the population reaches 10 million.

2) What is the trend regarding megacities ? They are 20 times more numerous than 70 years ago (from 2 to 22)

3) Where are most megacities located in the world ? Most of them are in developping countries

4) Give one example of a megacity located in a- a developped country (NYC), b- in an emerging country (Dehli) c- in a developping country (Lagos)

5) How is their population growing compared to the world population ? It is growing less than the world population.

6) Which cities had the fastest population growth ?

Tokyo / Mumbai / Dehli / NYC – Newark / Mexico City / Sao Paulo

7) From what you learnt about Jakarta, quote all the difficulties megacities meet in everyday life.

– Traffic congestion

– natural disasters like flooding which pollute water

– air polluted by car traffic and industry pollutants

– poor housing / development of slums

– insufficient sanitation infrastructure

8) What solutions have been found to solve these problems ?

– Traffic congestion : an efficient public transport network

– flooding : population displacement / shifts. Regular maintenance of waterways.

– air pollution

– poor housing / development of slums

– insufficient sanitation infrastructure

New hopes in urbanism

urban renewal: the process of making areas of a city more attractive and rich by creating new buildings and parks, more business activity etc

Smart cities : A smart city uses information and communication technology (ICT) to improve operational efficiency, share information with the public and provide a better quality of government service and citizen welfare.

Their concept is based on 6 principles of sustainable urban development.

  1. People-centred governance: everything is done to improve the citizens’ well-being.
  2. Collaborative and participatory economy:  innovation and sustainability are at the heart of an economic development whose aim is to improve overall well-being.

  3. public and private buildings efficiency:  recycling of waste (= déchets) and circular economy  (sharing, leasing, reusing, repairing, refurbishing and recycling existing materials and products as long as possible)
  4. Participatory  society: The city’s inhabitants are given a central role in the decision making process.
  5. More efficient, safer and smarter daily life: health, education and safety are assured for all.

  6. shared or electric mobility: public and private transport become more sustainable, favouring less polluting solutions and promoting shared and green mobility.


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